Silver Denarius - Roman Republic, c. 122 BC
Moneyer: M. Papirius Carbo
Obv: Helmeted head of Roma, right
Rev: Jupiter in Quadriga, right, M CARBO below, ROMA in ex.
(Sear-R151) - 18mm, 3.80gm
In ancient Roman religion, Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. Her image appears on the base of the column of Antoninus Pius.
Jupiter, the Roman equivalent of the chief Greek god Zeus, is usually thought to have originated as a sky god. His identifying implement is the thunderbolt, and his primary sacred animal is the eagle, which held precedence over other birds in the taking of auspices and became one of the most common symbols of the Roman army. The two emblems were often combined to represent the god in the form of an eagle holding in its claws a thunderbolt, frequently seen on Greek and Roman coins. As the sky-god, he was a divine witness to oaths, the sacred trust on which justice and good government depend.