Billon Silver Double Denarius - Ancient Rome
Ruler: Gallienus - Augustus 253-268 AD
Obv: "GALLIENVS AVG" Radiate bust of Gallienus facing left.
Rev: "VIRTVS AVG" – Emperor right, with spear & globe
Mint: Antioch (struck 265 AD)
S-R10406V, 20mm, 3.84gm
Scarcer type with bust left. - well centered with significant silvering remaining.
Gallienus was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire. While he won a number of military victories, he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces.
He contributed to military history as the first to commission primarily cavalry units, the Comitatenses, that could be dispatched anywhere in the Empire in short order. This reform arguably created a precedent for the future emperors Diocletian and Constantine I. The biographer Aurelius Victor reports that Gallienus forbade senators from becoming military commanders. This policy undermined senatorial power, as more reliable equestrian commanders rose to prominence. These reforms and the decline in senatorial influence not only helped Aurelian to salvage the Empire, but they also make Gallienus one of the emperors most responsible for the creation of the "Dominate", along with Septimius Severus, Diocletian, and Constantine I.